Still, the divisions between the new and veteran lawmakers — both in age and levels of experience — will force one of two outcomes, said Christina Greer, an associate professor of political science at Fordham University.
“They could get alienated, or they could change the conference,” Professor Greer said of the new legislators. “Time will tell. Either they’ll remain the outsider and the agitators, or they change the norms and they become the status quo.”
Already, powerful figures have pushed back on the new arrivals’ calls for change.
Last week, Ms. Biaggi wrote of her disappointment with the state budget. She said she had learned that some legislators “talk a big game about working for the people, but who are actually captured by lobbyist influence.”
“Now we know who those legislators are, and will plan accordingly,” she wrote in an email to supporters — a comment many took to suggest electoral challenges.
Mr. Cuomo, in a radio interview on WAMC this week, called threats of primaries “dangerous” and “destructive.” His top aide, Melissa DeRosa, echoed those comments at an event on Thursday, comparing the dynamic within the Democratic Party to the Tea Party movement in the Republican Party in 2010.
The Assembly speaker, Carl E. Heastie, when asked on Tuesday about potential primaries, said that the Senate and Assembly should be working together, and noted that he had helped raise money to create a Democratic majority in the Senate.
Ms. Biaggi later told a reporter that she had not used the word “primary.”
Ms. Biaggi had also attracted attention last month, when she and another new senator, Jessica Ramos of Queens, as well as Assemblywoman Yuh-Line Niou of Manhattan, held a news conference to excoriate Mr. Cuomo for holding a $25,000-a-couple fund-raiser during the budget. (The Senate Democrats have held expensive events during the budget as well.)